Stanford encylopedia of philosophy

Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (1646–1716) was one of the great thinkers o

Feb 27, 2003 · Negative liberty is the absence of obstacles, barriers or constraints. One has negative liberty to the extent that actions are available to one in this negative sense. Positive liberty is the possibility of acting — or the fact of acting — in such a way as to take control of one’s life and realize one’s fundamental purposes. Aug 30, 2003 · Creationism. First published Sat Aug 30, 2003; substantive revision Fri Sep 21, 2018. At a broad level, a Creationist is someone who believes in a god who is absolute creator of heaven and earth, out of nothing, by an act of free will. Such a deity is generally thought to be “transcendent” meaning beyond human experience, and constantly ...

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The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy organizes scholars from around the world in philosophy and related disciplines to create and maintain an up-to-date reference work. Co-Principal Editors: Edward N. Zalta and Uri Nodelman. Masthead | Editorial Board.Kevin N. Cawley (University College Cork) Philosophy of Language: Jeffrey C. King (Rutgers University) Ben Caplan (University of Kansas) Elisabeth Camp (Rutgers University) Robin Jeshion (University of Southern California) Ofra Magidor (Oxford University) Latin American and Iberian Philosophy: Otávio Bueno (University of Miami)May 2, 2002 · Aristotle’s Rhetoric. First published Thu May 2, 2002; substantive revision Tue Mar 15, 2022. Aristotle’s Rhetoric has had an unparalleled influence on the development of the art of rhetoric. In addition to Aristotle’s disciples and followers, the so-called Peripatetic philosophers (see Fortenbaugh/Mirhady 1994), famous Roman teachers of ... One of the most hectic jobs out there is working in retail. These employees are usually told to operate as if the customer is always right — and many customers are more than willing to take advantage of this philosophy with some pretty snea...Notes to. Metaethics. 1. Metaethical issues were central to both Hume and Kant, although they predictably disagreed; they also figured prominently in Plato’s defense of the value of justice and Aristotle’s argument that virtue and vice are in some way up to us. Two key issues are whether (and if so, in what sense) “ought” implies “can ...Plato on Rhetoric and Poetry. First published Mon Dec 22, 2003; substantive revision Wed Feb 12, 2020. Plato’s discussions of rhetoric and poetry are both extensive and influential. As in so many other cases, he sets the agenda for the subsequent tradition. And yet understanding his remarks about each of these topics—rhetoric and poetry ...Enter the realm of "Plato Stanford Encyclopedia. Of Philosophy," a mesmerizing literary masterpiece penned with a distinguished author, guiding readers on a ...[This was the previous entry on Erasmus in the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy — see the version history.] “Erasmus, Desiderius”, entry by Eric MacPhail in the The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Erasmus Center for Early Modern Studies, a joint initiative of Erasmus University Rotterdam and Rotterdam City Library.Giovanni Battista Vico (1668–1744) spent most of his professional life as Professor of Rhetoric at the University of Naples. He was trained in jurisprudence, but read widely in Classics, philology, and philosophy, all of which informed his highly original views on history, historiography, and culture. His thought is most fully expressed in ...Gödel’s two incompleteness theorems are among the most important results in modern logic, and have deep implications for various issues. They concern the limits of provability in formal axiomatic theories. The first incompleteness theorem states that in any consistent formal system \ (F\) within which a certain amount of arithmetic can be ...Our traditional strengths in logic and the philosophy of science remain central to the department, and they are now complemented by very strong programs in action theory, ethics and political …This definition is also found in multiple encyclopedias and dictionaries of philosophy. For example, in the Concise Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy, William L. Rowe (also an atheist) writes, “Atheism is the position that affirms the nonexistence of God. It proposes positive disbelief rather than mere suspension of belief” (2000: 62).Confirmation. First published Thu May 30, 2013; substantive revision Tue Jan 28, 2020. Human cognition and behavior heavily relies on the notion that evidence (data, premises) can affect the credibility of hypotheses (theories, conclusions). This general idea seems to underlie sound and effective inferential practices in all sorts of domains ...The Definition of Art. The definition of art is controversial in contemporary philosophy. Whether art can be defined has also been a matter of controversy. The philosophical usefulness of a definition of art has also been debated. Contemporary definitions can be classified with respect to the dimensions of art they emphasize.In the discipline of international relations there are contending general theories or theoretical perspectives. Realism, also known as political realism, is a view of international politics that stresses its competitive and conflictual side. It is usually contrasted with idealism or liberalism, which tends to emphasize cooperation.26.12.2017 ... Welcome to the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (SEP). From its inception, the SEP was designed so that each entry is maintained and kept ...First published Fri Feb 23, 2007; substantive revision Wed Jul 12, 2017. The term “toleration”—from the Latin tolerare: to put up with, countenance or suffer—generally refers to the conditional acceptance of or non-interference with beliefs, actions or practices that one considers to be wrong but still “tolerable,” such that they ...Mission. The undergraduate program in Philosophy trains students to think clearly and critically about the deepest and broadest questions concerning being, knowledge, and value, as well as their connections to the full range of human activities and interests. The Philosophy major presents students with the perspectives of past thinkers and ...Theology presupposes Christian faith, which is an affective response to Christ, and which requires "confidence and assurance of heart" ( Institutes 3.2.33). Yet scholastic philosophy, with its "endless labyrinths" and "obscure definitions", has "drawn a veil over Christ to hide him" ( Institutes 3.2.2).At the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (SEP), we have since 1995 been developing and implementing the concept of a dynamic reference work (DRW) to provide a …Oct 22, 2002 · Intrinsic value has traditionally been thought to lie at the heart of ethics. Philosophers use a number of terms to refer to such value. The intrinsic value of something is said to be the value that that thing has “in itself,” or “for its own sake,” or “as such,” or “in its own right.”. Extrinsic value is value that is not ... A Greek philosopher of Ephesus (near modern Kuşadası, Turkey) who was active around 500 BCE, Heraclitus propounded a distinctive theory which he expressed in oracular language. He is best known for his doctrines that things are constantly changing (universal flux), that opposites coincide (unity of opposites), and that fire is the basic ...7.4.2016 ... The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy puts other big name internet encyclopedias to shame.Homosexuality. First published Tue Aug 6, 2002; substantive revision Tue Apr 28, 2020. The term ‘homosexuality’ was coined in the late 19 th century by an Austrian-born Hungarian psychologist, Karoly Maria Benkert. Although the term is new, discussions about sexuality in general, and same-sex attraction in particular, have occasioned ...The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy orgaIntroduction. This supplementary document di First published Wed Feb 23, 2005; substantive revision Wed Oct 17, 2018. Pythagoras, one of the most famous and controversial ancient Greek philosophers, lived from ca. 570 to ca. 490 BCE. He spent his early years on the island of Samos, off the coast of modern Turkey. At the age of forty, however, he emigrated to the city of Croton in southern ... 1. Knowledge as Justified True Belief. There are three com The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy organizes scholars from around the world in philosophy and related disciplines to create and maintain an up-to-date reference work. Co …At the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (SEP), we have since 1995 been developing and implementing the concept of a dynamic reference work (DRW) to provide a … Mar 1, 2011 · Social norms, the informal rules that gove

Examples of nursing philosophies include fostering a healing environment for patients, treating others with compassion and respect, and advocating for patient rights. A nursing philosophy may be personal or the philosophy of a group of nurs...Dec 3, 2008 · René Descartes (1596–1650) was a creative mathematician of the first order, an important scientific thinker, and an original metaphysician. During the course of his life, he was a mathematician first, a natural scientist or “natural philosopher” second, and a metaphysician third. In mathematics, he developed the techniques that made ... Carl Schmitt. First published Sat Aug 7, 2010; substantive revision Thu Aug 29, 2019. Carl Schmitt (1888–1985) was a conservative German legal, constitutional, and political theorist. Schmitt is often considered to be one of the most important critics of liberalism, parliamentary democracy, and liberal cosmopolitanism.Dec 14, 2005 · Although the term “epistemology” is no more than a couple of centuries old, the field of epistemology is at least as old as any in philosophy. In different parts of its extensive history, different facets of epistemology have attracted attention.

Mission. The undergraduate program in Philosophy trains students to think clearly and critically about the deepest and broadest questions concerning being, knowledge, and value, as well as their connections to the full range of human activities and interests. The Philosophy major presents students with the perspectives of past thinkers and ...Isaac Newton. Isaac Newton (1642–1727) is best known for having invented the calculus in the mid to late 1660s (most of a decade before Leibniz did so independently, and ultimately more influentially) and for having formulated the theory of universal gravity — the latter in his Principia, the single most important work in the transformation ...William of Ockham (c. 1287–1347) is, along with Thomas Aquinas and John Duns Scotus, among the most prominent figures in the history of philosophy during the High Middle Ages. He is probably best known today for his espousal of metaphysical nominalism; indeed, the methodological principle known as “Ockham’s Razor” is named after him.…

Reader Q&A - also see RECOMMENDED ARTICLES & FAQs. The Problem of Evil. First published Mon Sep 16, 2002; substantive. Possible cause: Aristotle describes ethical virtue as a “ hexis ” (“state” “condition” “dispositi.

There are roughly two philosophical literatures on “happiness,” each corresponding to a different sense of the term. One uses ‘happiness’ as a value term, roughly synonymous with well-being or flourishing. The other body of work uses the word as a purely descriptive psychological term, akin to ‘depression’ or ‘tranquility’.Philosophy of Biology in Latin America [ August 21, 2023] Meritocracy [ August 3, 2023] Mind (Heart-Mind) in Chinese Philosophy [ July 10, 2023] Transformative Experience [ June 1, 2023] Arabic and Islamic Philosophy of Religion [ May 31, 2023] Propositional Logic [ May 18, 2023] Atonement [ April 5, 2023]

Theology presupposes Christian faith, which is an affective response to Christ, and which requires “confidence and assurance of heart” ( Institutes 3.2.33). Yet scholastic philosophy, with its “endless labyrinths” and “obscure definitions”, has “drawn a veil over Christ to hide him” ( Institutes 3.2.2).1. Categories of Rights A right to life, a right to choose; a right to vote, to work, to strike; a right to one phone call, to dissolve parliament, to operate a forklift, to asylum, to equal treatment before the law, to feel proud of what one has done; a right to exist, to sentence an offender to death, to launch a nuclear first strike, to castle kingside, to a distinct genetic …

1. The Philosophy of Color. In this section, we consider some Truth is one of the central subjects in philosophy. It is also one of the largest. Truth has been a topic of discussion in its own right for thousands of years. Moreover, a huge variety of issues in philosophy relate to truth, either by relying on theses about truth, or implying theses about truth. It would be impossible to survey all there is ... First published Wed Dec 16, 2015; substantive revision Fri Oct 9, 2020Cognitive science is the interdisciplinary study of The term ‘proposition’ has a broad use in contemporary philosophy. It is used to refer to some or all of the following: the primary bearers of truth-value, the objects of belief and other “propositional attitudes” (i.e., what is believed, doubted, etc. [ 1] ), the referents of that -clauses, and the meanings of sentences.Justice. The idea of justice occupies centre stage both in ethics, and in legal and political philosophy. We apply it to individual actions, to laws, and to public policies, and we think in each case that if they are unjust this is a strong, maybe even conclusive, reason to reject them. Classically, justice was counted as one of the four ... First published Wed Dec 16, 2015; substantive revision Fr Colonialism is a practice of domination, which involves the subjugation of one people to another. At least since the Crusades and the conquest of the Americas, political theorists have used theories of justice, contract, and natural law to both criticize and justify European domination. In the nineteenth century, the contradiction between ...Jul 1, 2003 · One of the ways that non-human animals negotiate their social environments is by being particularly attentive to the emotional states of others around them. When a conspecific is angry, it is a good idea to get out of his way. Animals that develop life-long bonds are known to suffer from the death of their partners. In the philosophical literature, the term Innateness and Language. First publishedWelcome to the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (SEP), whi Egalitarianism. First published Fri Aug 16, 2002; substantive revision Wed Apr 24, 2013. Egalitarianism is a trend of thought in political philosophy. An egalitarian favors equality of some sort: People should get the same, or be treated the same, or be treated as equals, in some respect. An alternative view expands on this last-mentioned ... Critical Theory. First published Tue Mar 8, 2005. Cr Critical Theory. First published Tue Mar 8, 2005. Critical Theory has a narrow and a broad meaning in philosophy and in the history of the social sciences. “Critical Theory” in the narrow sense designates several generations of German philosophers and social theorists in the Western European Marxist tradition known as …William of Ockham (c. 1287–1347) is, along with Thomas Aquinas and John Duns Scotus, among the most prominent figures in the history of philosophy during the High Middle Ages. He is probably best known today for his espousal of metaphysical nominalism; indeed, the methodological principle known as “Ockham’s Razor” is named … 1. The Basic Idea 1.1 Introduced. The ter[The term ‘proposition’ has a broad use in contemporary philosophyEncyclopedias · Open access · Publi Mar 21, 2018 · The original source of what has become known as the “problem of induction” is in Book 1, part iii, section 6 of A Treatise of Human Nature by David Hume, published in 1739 (Hume 1739). In 1748, Hume gave a shorter version of the argument in Section iv of An enquiry concerning human understanding (Hume 1748). Throughout this article we will ...